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Basic Understanding of a Automobile Starter

What is a Starter? A starter (also self-starter, cranking motor, or starter motor) is a device used to rotate (crank) an internal-combustion engine so as to initiate the engine's operation under its own power.

1.Armature

The armature is an electromagnet, mounted on the drive shaft and bearings for support. It is a laminated soft iron core which is wrapped with numerous conductors, loops or windings.

Type of Fault in an Armature: Field winding fault is investigated as becoming short much current subject to the largeness of short circuit. The circuit with the ground and the short circuit between the starter motor does not turn because there are not enough windings.

                                                                               

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2.Brushes

The brushes run on a section of the commutator at the rear of the housing, making contact with the contacts of the commutator and conducting electricity.

 
                                                                                  

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Type of Fault in an Brushes: Wear and tear will be more as it is always in contact with the armature. Heat will generate more on the brushes.

 

3.Solenoid Switch:

The solenoid contains two coils of wire that are wrapped around a moveable core. The solenoid acts as a switch to close the electrical connection and connects the starter motor to the vehicle's battery.


                                                                         

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Type of Fault in a Solenoid Switch: 

  • The starter solenoid is always engaged, even upon releasing the starter button.
  • The Overdrive gear always engaged, leading to it being driven by the flywheel ring gear reversely. This problem results from a return spring that has become too weak from repeated use.
  • The starter solenoid failed to work up the starter to cause rotation. It only makes a series of sounds without starting the engine.

 
 

4.Over Running Clutch

The ORC is a unique combination of gears and springs. Once the starter is engaged the gear is extended into the gearbox housing and is engaged with the flywheel. This spins the engine to begin the combustion process.


                                                                          

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Type of Fault in a ORC:

  • Regular wear and tear will cause the bendix teeth to get damaged.
  • Spring gets weak after several uses.

 

Field Coils

The housing holds the starter fields in the housing with screws. This can consist of two to four field coils connected in series. Energised by the battery this converts the coils into an electromagnet which then turns the armature. When the armature coils are powered a magnetic field is created around the armature.


                                                                                    

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Type of Faults in a Field coil:

When this happens it causes a large current to flow within the shorted turn. The heat generated by this can cause the field coil to heat up and burn out, or for the wire to melt and break the circuit - stopping the current flow through it.

 

 

For more Technical details please find our Training programme in our Website: Basic Product Training-Starter Motor